ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting both children and adults. It is described as a “persistent” or on-going pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that gets in the way of daily life or typical development. Individuals with ADHD may also have difficulties with maintaining attention, executive function (or the brain’s ability to begin an activity, organize itself and manage tasks) and working memory.
There are three presentations of ADHD:
- Combined inattentive & hyperactive-impulsive
What is the DSM-5?
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association is the guide that lays out the criteria to be used by doctors, mental health professionals, and other qualified clinicians when making a diagnosis of ADHD. The DSM-5 was published in 2013 and made changes to the definition of ADHD that affect how the disorder is diagnosed in children and in adults.
What about ADHD has changed with the DSM-5?
Adult ADHD: For many years, the diagnostic criteria for ADHD stated that it was children who were diagnosed with the disorder. That meant that teens and adults with symptoms of the disorder, and who may have been struggling for many years but didn’t know why, couldn’t officially be diagnosed with ADHD. The DSM-5 has changed this; adults and teens can now be officially diagnosed with the disorder. The diagnostic criteria mentions and gives examples of how the disorder appears in adults and teens.
- In diagnosing ADHD in adults, clinicians now look back to middle childhood (age 12) and the teen years when making a diagnosis for the beginning of symptoms, not all the way back to childhood (age 7).
- In the previous edition, DSM-IV TR*, the three types of ADHD were referring to as “subtypes.” This has changed; subtypes are now referred to as “presentations.” Furthermore, a person can change “presentations” during their lifetime. This change better describes how the disorder affects an individual at different points of life.
- A person with ADHD can have now have mild, moderate or severe ADHD. This is based on how many symptoms a person has and how difficult those symptoms make daily life.
What is a significant change between DSM-IV TR and DSM-5?
A person can now be diagnosed with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorder.
What symptoms must a person have for a diagnosis of ADHD?
In making the diagnosis, children still should have six or more symptoms of the disorder. In older teens and adults the DSM-5 states they should have at least five symptoms.
The criteria of symptoms for a diagnosis of ADHD:
- Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes.
- Has difficulty sustaining attention.
- Does not appear to listen.
- Struggles to follow through on instructions.
- Has difficulty with organization.
- Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring a lot of thinking.
- Loses things.
- Is easily distracted.
- Is forgetful in daily activities.
- Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair.
- Has difficulty remaining seated.
- Runs about or climbs excessively in children; extreme restlessness in adults.
- Difficulty engaging in activities quietly.
- Acts as if driven by a motor; adults will often feel inside like they were driven by a motor.
- Talks excessively.
- Blurts out answers before questions have been completed.
- Difficulty waiting or taking turns.
- Interrupts or intrudes upon others.
Combined inattentive & hyperactive-impulsive presentation:
- Has symptoms from both of the above presentations.
Reference: American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5), Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association